Report: APP CMHS Project 1




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4.1. Technology Gap Map

This section summarises future technology needed to manage identified key mining hazards. This information provides an insight into the potential R & D requirements for APP countries. These tables also highlight any gaps within APP countries that may justify additional or special research work of a collective nature.

Figure 102 Mine explosion control technologies gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Explosions control


Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Explosibility studies of mixed gas and dust

  • Barrier design

  • Continuous dust level monitoring

  • More effective gas capture

  • More effective water infusion

  • Proactive goaf inertisation

  • Effective wet stone dusting system

  • Safe, economical, automatic dust suppression system

  • Frictional ignition prevention

China

  • Risk based assessment and control planning

  • Early waring systems

  • Active automatic explosion suppressing devices

  • Fully effective water infusion

  • Dust scrubbers

  • Goaf inertisation

USA

  • Risk based assessment and control planning

  • Early waring systems

  • Explosion rated seals and ventilation devices

India

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Continuous gas monitoring

  • Continuous dust monitoring

  • Trigger Action Response Plan



Figure 103 Gas control technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Gas control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Ventilation

Pre-drainage

Post-drainage

Australia

  • Gas prediction accuracy in complex conditions

  • Integrated coal and gas extraction planning

  • Integrated and systematic gas monitoring

  • Ventilation pressure balance

  • Improved hydrofracture

  • Mineral leaching

  • Gas injection stimulation

  • Accurate directional drilling

  • Enhanced SIS drainage

  • Borehole drilling in soft or structured coal seams

  • Coiled tube drilling

  • Water jet drilling with tight radius drilling to multiple seams

  • Gas drainage using gas tunnels above the seam for highly gassy mines

  • SIS horizontal gas drainage

China

  • High gas prediction accuracy

  • Improved planning of integrated coal and gas extraction

  • Sampling technologies for gas condition in soft and deep coal seams

  • Rapid gas sampling

  • “Y” type with single heading

  • Mineral leaching

  • Enhancement of coal seam permeability

  • Gas drainage technologies in soft and deep coal seams

  • Gas drainage tunnels

  • Gas drainage technologies in soft and deep coal seams

USA

  • Gas prediction accuracy

  • Integrated and systematic gas monitoring

  • Ventilation pressure balance

  • Effective gas drainage design

  • More effective goaf drainage


India

  • Potential application of the above technologies

  • Potential application of the above technologies

  • Potential application of the above technologies

  • Potential application of the above technologies

  • Potential application of the above technologies



Figure 104 Outburst control technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Outburst control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • More appropriate threshold values

  • Studying into gas condition variation

  • Remote detection of geological structure ahead of mining

  • Gas drainage in soft and low permeability seams

  • Improved gas drainage through stimulation

  • Improved hole quality with water jet drilling

  • Optimal sequencing and preconditioning with mining

China

  • Accurate prediction of outburst processes and impacts

  • More appropriate threshold values

  • Accurate prediction of deep mining outbursts

  • Remote detection of geological structures ahead of mining

  • Gas drainage in soft, low permeable and deep coal seams

  • Sampling technologies in soft and deep coal seams

  • Improved gas drainage through stimulation

USA

  • Accurate prediction methods

  • Potential application of the above technologies

  • Potential application of the above technologies

India

  • Potential application of the above technologies

  • Potential application of the above technologies

  • Potential application of the above technologies



Figure 105 Spontaneous combustion control technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Spontaneous combustion control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Sponcom mechanism study

  • Accurate prediction of sponcom propensity

  • Monitoring and locating the deep goaf heating

  • Remote sensing

  • Control techniques in inaccessible goaf heatings

  • New fire suppressant materials

  • Ventilation pressure balance techniques

China

  • Early detection method of sponcom with enriched gas analyse technologies


  • Monitoring and locating the deep goaf heating

  • Pre-warning system that incorporates a sponcom prediction expert system with mining scheduling

USA

  • Accurate prediction of sponcom propensity

  • Monitoring and locating heatings

  • Tube bundle system

  • Ventilation pressure balance techniques

  • Remote control techniques

India

  • Risk assessment

  • R70

  • Gas evolution

  • Gas monitoring

  • Tube bundle system

  • Gas analysis

  • Gas chromatograph

  • Trigger Action Response Plan

  • Sponcom management

  • Proactive inertisation



Figure 106 Fire control technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Fire control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Prediction and control planning for thick and multiple seams

  • Rapid, widespread, accurate fire detection, alarm and notification system

  • Automatic fire suppression systems for continuous miners and shearers

  • Continuous inertisation of goafs to protect against frictional ignition

  • Gel development and delivery

  • Coal transport as slurry (in pipes)

China

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Radon remote sensing

  • Proactive goaf inertisation

  • Automatic fire suppression systems for continuous miners and shearers

USA

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Online fire warning system

  • Proactive goaf inertisation

India

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Continuous monitoring of temperature

  • Remote sensors

  • Inertisation

  • Slurry injection



Figure 107 Strata control technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Strata control

Prediction & Design

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Prediction and design in multiple, thick and deep seams

  • Integrated geotechnical monitoring

  • Real time monitoring and data interpretation and alarm systems

  • Supports in soft rocks, thick seams, multi seam and in deep mining environment

  • Automated, rapid bolting technology

  • Spray polymer skin reinforcement

  • Self drilling bolts

  • Subsidence reduction

China

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Design for deep, high stress seams

  • Thick seams with weak roof/ribs

  • Rock burst prediction


  • Integrated system of continuous strata stability monitoring and early warning

  • Strata management plan

  • Reliable strata reinforcement

  • Support for deep and high stress mining conditions

  • Automated, rapid bolting technology

  • Subsidence reduction

USA

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Design for high stress seams

  • Rock burst prediction


Geotechnical monitoring

  • Strata management plan

  • Reliable strata reinforcement

Automated, rapid bolting technology

India

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Stability prediction in multi seams and deep mines

  • Prediction in Steep seams

  • Ongoing systematic monitoring

  • Strata management plan

  • Supports in soft rocks and in deep mining environment

  • Longwall supports

  • High-capacity support



Figure 108 Water control technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Water control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Detection and prediction of water inrush from old workings and other water bodies

  • Prediction of water inflow in deep and multi seams mining

  • Further development and application of numerical prediction tools for water inflow

  • Real time monitoring and analysis of water or inrush threats

  • Remote sensing technologies to detect old workings and other water bodies

  • Improved strata injection technologies

  • Optimised mining sequencing, panel designs and control devices to manage water inrush between workings

  • Application of MRD and SIS technologies for dewatering

China

  • Detection and prediction of water inrush from old workings and other water bodies

  • Improving prediction accuracy in deep seam mining

  • Real time monitoring and analysis of water or inrush threats

  • Water inrush management

  • Optimised mining sequencing, panel designs and control devices to manage water inrush between workings

USA

  • More accurate detection and prediction of water inrush

  • Monitoring and analysis of water or inrush threats

  • Water inrush management

India

  • Detection and prediction of water inrush from old workings or unknown water bodies

  • Real time monitoring and analysis of water or inrush threats

  • Integrated water inrush management



Figure 109 Mine communication technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Mine communication

Australia

  • Integration of tracking system with voice communication for people

  • Integration of monitoring and tracking systems for equipment

  • Reliable emergency communication technology

China

  • Integration of tracking system with voice communication for people

  • Integration of monitoring and tracking systems for equipment

  • Reliable emergency communication technology

USA

  • Integration of tracking system with voice communication for people

  • Integration of monitoring and tracking systems for equipment

  • Reliable emergency communication technology

India

  • Tracking of people and asset

  • Mobile voice communication

  • Text Message communication

  • Video communication

Figure 110 Mine automation technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Mine automation

Australia

Longwall

  • Automated longwall equipment to negotiate deviations in seams with minimal or no human intervention (horizon control and creep control)

  • Automated belt retraction

Development

  • Automated mine development (coal cutting, roof bolting and haulage)


China

Longwall

  • Automated face positioning and belt retraction

Development

  • Automated mine development (coal cutting, roof bolting and haulage)

USA

Longwall

  • Automated face positioning and belt retraction

Development

  • Automated mine development (coal cutting, roof bolting and haulage)


India

Longwall

  • Potential application of longwall automation using the current technologies applied overseas

Development

  • Coal production by continuous miner and shuttle car technology

  • Semi-automated services advance system (auxiliary fans, ventilation ducts and cables and hoses)



Figure 111 Safety and health management technology gap map for future needs

Technology

Country

Safety and health management

Australia

  • National uniformity of safety and health legislation

  • Proactive safety and health culture

  • Improved health management technologies for diesel particulates, noise, dust and occupational ergonomics

China

  • Risk based management system

  • Improved health management technologies for diesel particulates, noise, dust and occupational ergonomics

USA

  • Risk based management system

India

  • Risk based management system

  • Proactive safety and health culture


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