Report: APP CMHS Project 1




CSIRO advises that the information contained in this comprises general statements based on scientific research. The reader is advised and needs to be aware that such information may be incomplete or unable to be used in any specific situation. No reliance or actions must therefore be made on that information without seeking prior expert professional, scientific and technical advice. To the extent permitted by law, CSIRO (including its employees and consultants) excludes all liability to any person for any consequences, including but not limited to all losses, damages, costs, expenses and any other compensation, arising directly or indirectly from using this publication (in part or in whole) and any information or material contained in it.



3.9. Current Technology Map

In compiling this report, it became clear that each key coal producing country studied has developed its own expertise and knowledge in mining and safety technologies for the country’s mining conditions. There are significant opportunities for all APP key coal producing countries to share and exchange this information to meet their current needs, and to collaborate in developing solutions to address common emerging mine safety challenges as overall coal production and the complexity of mining increase. For instance, ground control techniques practiced in China may provide potential solutions for Australian and USA mines as they increase in depth beyond 550 m; whereas, the current safety practices in Australia and USA may well be an appropriate solution for Indian mines at sub-500 m depths. The expansive range of health interventions and technologies developed at NIOSH may have universal application at all mines throughout the APP countries. It is in this regard that the summary of existing technologies is provided in this section. This information is provided in an attempt to communicate in order to identify and remove the barriers to safer mining for the benefit of all APP countries. It is clear that some countries have novel solutions to mining hazards that are yet to be understood and accepted by other potential user countries



Figure 92 Current mine explosion control technology map

Technology

Country

Explosions control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Hazard Management Plans

  • Risk assessment

  • State mine acts and regulations

  • Continuous gas monitoring

  • Dust monitoring and sampling

  • Tube bundle systems

  • Trigger Action Response Plan

  • Ventilation

  • Gas control systems/gas drainage

  • Dust control systems/dust scrubbers, limestone dusting, water infusion in coal seams and water spray

  • Isolation and elimination of ignition sources - IS control circuits, fire resistant materials, hazardous substances such as acetylene

  • Auxiliary water barriers

  • Electrical ignition management systems – IS and explosion protection

China

  • National regulations and guidelines

  • Continuous gas monitoring

  • Tube bundle systems

  • Continuous temperature monitoring / belt monitoring systems

  • Dust monitoring and sampling

  • Ventilation

  • Gas control systems/gas drainage

  • Dust control systems/dust scrubbers, water infusion in coal seams and water spray

  • Elimination and isolation of fire resources

  • Explosion suppressing/passive measures(stone dust and water barriers), active measures(automatic explosion suppressing devices)

USA

  • National regulations and guidelines

  • Continuous gas monitoring

  • Dust monitoring and sampling

  • Ventilation

  • Gas drainage

  • Dust control systems/dust scrubbers and water spray

  • Elimination and isolation of fire resources

  • Explosion suppressing/passive measures(stone dust and water barriers)

India

  • National standards and guidelines

  • Dust sampling

  • Face gas monitoring

  • Ventilation

  • Mine equipment approval processes

Figure 93 Current mine gas control technology map

Technology

Country

Gas control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Ventilation

Pre-drainage

Post-drainage

Australia

  • Hazard Management Plans

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Ventilation software

  • Empirical gas emission prediction

  • Tube bundle system

  • Real time online gas monitoring

  • Gas sensors

  • 2-headings

  • 3-headings

  • “U, Y & Z” type

  • Vertical wells

  • Surface to inseam boreholes (SIS)

  • Underground long and short horizontal boreholes

  • Permeability stimulations technologies such as hydraulic fracturing

  • Goaf vertical wells/boreholes

  • Cross-measure drainage

  • Long or short horizontal boreholes

China

  • Regional and coal face gas prediction

  • Empirical gas emission prediction

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Ventilation software

  • Real time online gas monitoring systems

  • Tube bundle system

  • Belt monitoring systems

  • Gas sensors

  • Single heading

  • U” type

  • “U”+”L” type

  • “U”+”I” type

  • “Y” type

  • “Z” type

  • Vertical wells

  • SIS drainage

  • Underground long and short horizontal boreholes

  • Permeability stimulations with hydraulic fracturing

  • Vertical goaf boreholes/wells

  • Cross-measure drainage

  • Long and short horizontal boreholes

  • Sealed goaf drainage with boreholes and pipes

  • Gas drainage tunnel above and under working seams with or without cross measure boreholes

USA

  • Ventilation software

  • Empirical gas emission prediction

  • Real time online gas monitoring systems

  • Grab sampling

  • 3-headings

  • “U, Y & Z” type

  • Vertical wells

  • Underground long and short horizontal boreholes

  • Goaf vertical wells/boreholes

  • Cross-measure drainage

  • Long or short horizontal boreholes

India

  • Ventilation

  • Gas sensors

  • 2-headings

  • Not widely practised

  • Not widely practised



Figure 94 Current outburst control technologies map

Technology

Country

Outburst control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Risk assessment

  • Outburst Management Plans

  • Gas content based prediction

  • Geological structure assessment

  • Regular gas content measurement during mining

  • Monitoring mine gas levels

  • Trigger Action Response Plans

  • Gas pre-drainage

  • Gas post-drainage

  • Special personal protective equipment

China

  • Outburst hazard classification

  • Regional prediction

  • Coal face prediction

  • Roadway prediction

  • Initial gas desorption rate

  • initial gas flow rate from boreholes

  • coal cutting index

  • gas content

  • gas pressure

  • Gas pre-drainage

  • Pre-mining seam conditioning with de-stressing and degassing technology

  • Gas post-drainage

  • Pre-mining seam conditioning

  • Blasting to induce outbursts prior to mining

USA

  • Gas desorption rate

  • Initial gas desorption rate

  • Gas pre-drainage

  • Gas post-drainage

India

  • Not applicable

  • Not applicable

  • Not applicable



Figure 95 Current spontaneous combustion control technologies map

Technology

Country

Spontaneous combustion control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Risk assessment

  • Sponcom management plan

  • Sponcom characterisation and control planning

  • Standard R70 and indicator gas tests in recognised labs

  • Coal ranking

  • Tube bundle system

  • Gas sample bags

  • CO & temperature sensors

  • Gas chromatograph

  • Continuous gas monitoring

  • Thermographic imaging

  • Trigger Action Response Plan

  • Ventilation

  • Inertisation with boiler gas, liquid nitrogen and GAG

  • Timely installation of seals

  • Grout injection

China

  • Sponcom characterisation and control planning

  • Standard oxygen absorption, ignition temperature and indicator gas tests in certified labs

  • Definition of three coal oxidation zones

  • Tube bundle system

  • Rn technique

  • Infrared technique

  • Continuous gas monitoring

  • Gas chromatograph

  • Ventilation

  • Surface and underground slurry injection

  • Fire suppressant materials/gels, large-molecule colloids, compound colloids, foam

  • Ventilation pressure balance

  • Seals

USA

  • Sponcom characterisation and control planning

  • Standard oxygen absorption, ignition temperature and indicator gas tests

  • Gas sample bags

  • CO & temperature sensors

  • Gas chromatograph

  • Ventilation

  • Water or portable fire extinguishers

  • Foam

  • Sealing/flooding/CO2/N2 gas injection

India

  • Sponcom characterisation

  • Crossing Point Temperature index

  • Recognised labs

  • Gas sample

  • CO & temperature

  • Ventilation and pressure balance

  • Sealants

  • Inert gas

Figure 96 Current fire control technology map

Technology

Country

Fire control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Risk assessment and control planning

  • Use of FRAS materials

  • CO & temperature

  • Equipment automatic fire detection and suppression

  • Personal inspection

  • Friction sparks detection

  • Thermographic imaging of apparatus

  • Fire extinguishment equipment

  • Intrinsically safe control circuits

  • Inertisation gas and foam

  • Non-flammable substitutes-fire resistant anti-static equipment

  • Contraband

China

  • National regulations and guidelines

  • CO & temperature

  • Equipment automatic fire detection and suppression

  • Personal inspection

  • Fire extinguishment equipment

  • Inertisation gas and foam

  • Intrinsically safe control circuits

  • Non-flammable substitutes-fire resistant anti-Static equipment

  • Goaf sealing

  • Contraband

USA

  • National regulations and guidelines

  • CO & temperature

  • Equipment automatic fire detection and suppression

  • Personal inspection

  • Fire extinguishment equipment

  • Inertisation gas and foam

  • Intrinsically safe control circuits

  • Non-flammable substitutes-fire resistant anti-Static equipment

  • Sealing

India

  • National regulations and guidelines

  • CO & temperature

  • Fire extinguishment equipment

  • Sealing


Figure 97 Current strata control technology map

Technology

Country

Strata control

Prediction & Design

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Strata management plan

  • Site characterisation

  • Mine layout and pillar design

  • Longwall shield selection

  • Numerical modelling and stability analysis

  • Subsidence monitoring

  • Roof/ floor convergance monitoring – telltales and extensometers

  • Stress monitoring

  • Rock bolt/cable monitoring

  • Microseismic activities monitoring

  • Trigger Action Response Plan Support/shortcrete, mesh, W-straps

  • Rock bolts

  • Cable bolts

China

  • Site characterisation

  • Mine layout and sequence design

  • Longwall shield design

  • Physical modelling

  • Numerical modelling and stability analysis

  • Subsidence monitoring

  • Roof floor converging

  • Rib converging

  • Stress monitoring

  • Rock bolt/cable monitoring

  • Micro-seismic activities monitoring

  • Support plan

  • U-type steel support

  • Chemical anchored bolts

  • Retained goaf edge roadway support

USA

  • Site characterisation

  • Mine layout and pillar design

  • Longwall shield selection

  • Numerical modelling and stability analysis

  • Roof/ floor convergence monitoring

  • Stress monitoring

  • Rock bolt/cable monitoring

  • Subsidence monitoring

  • Support plan

  • Chemical anchored bolts


India

  • Site characterisation

  • Mine layout and pillar design

  • Numerical modelling and stability analysis

  • Occasional monitoring

  • Roof bolt anchor test

  • Support plan

  • Rock bolts

  • Cable bolts


Figure 98 Current water control technology map

Technology

Country

Water control

Prediction & Planning

Monitoring

Control system

Australia

  • Mine water inrush management planning

  • Application of Wardell Guidelines

  • Modelling of water bodies and potential mine interaction

  • Mine water inflow and discharge

  • Monitoring of water flow in surface water bodies and rainfall

  • Pore water pressure survey with piezometer

  • Detection of water body with advance drilling

  • Physical inspection

  • Mine water management plan

  • Water drainage

  • Barrier pillars between mine workings and water inrush threat

  • Blocking water with injection

China

  • Water flow prediction through analysis of geological and hydrological conditions of surrounding strata and pumping/recharge tests

  • Modelling of water bodies and potential mine interaction

  • Tracer and isotopic methods to indentify water flow passage

  • Pore water pressure survey with piezometer

  • Detection of water bearing structures in advance of workings with advance drilling and remote sensing

  • Monitoring of water flow in surface water bodies and rainfall

  • Physical inspection

  • Underground water drainage with boreholes or special excavated tunnel

  • Blocking water with injection

  • Barrier pillar between mine workings and water inrush threat

  • Water drainage

USA

  • Water flow prediction through analysis of geological and hydrological conditions of surrounding strata and pumping/recharge tests

  • Mine water inflow and discharge

  • Pore water pressure survey with piezometer

  • Detection of water body with advance drilling

  • Physical inspection

  • Water drainage

  • Barrier pillars between mine workings and water inrush threat

  • Blocking water with injection

India

  • Mine water inrush management planning

  • Water flow prediction through analysis of geological and hydrological conditions of surrounding strata and pumping/recharge tests

  • Mine water inflow and discharge

  • Monitoring of water flow in surface water bodies and rainfall

  • Water level survey

  • Detection of water body with advance drilling

  • Mine water management plan

  • Water drainage

  • Barrier pillars between mine workings and water inrush threat


Figure 99 Current mine communication technology map

Technology

Country

Mine communication

Australia

  • Tracking of people and assets

  • Text message communication (one way)

  • Cable and mobile voice communication

  • Video communication

China

  • Tracking of people and asset

  • Text Message communication (one way)

  • Cable and mobile voice communication

  • Video communication

USA

  • Tracking of people and assets

  • Text message communication (one way)

  • Cable and mobile voice communication

  • Video communication

India

  • Wired voice communication


Figure 100 Current mine automation technology map

Technology

Country

Mine automation

Australia

Longwall

  • Shearer initiated AFC and support advance

  • Automated face positioning, cutting and horizon control

  • Coal haulage and service advance system are substantially automated

Development

  • Semi-automated support installation

  • Coal haulage is predominately by shuttle car and limited use of flexible conveyor train (FCT) technology

  • Semi-automated services advance system

China

Longwall

  • Shearer initiated AFC and support advance

  • Semi-automated face cutting and horizon control

  • Coal haulage and service advance systems are substantially automated

Development

  • Semi-automated support installation and

  • Coal haulage is predominately by shuttle car

  • Semi-automated services advance system

USA

Longwall

  • Shearer initiated AFC and support advance

  • Automated face positioning, cutting and horizon control (one mine)

  • Coal haulage and service advance systems are substantially automated

Development

  • Semi-automated support installation

  • Partially automated face cutting and horizon control, coal haulage is predominately by shuttle car

India

Longwall

  • Shearer initiated AFC and support advance

  • Coal haulage and service advance systems are semi-automated

Bord and Pillar

  • Semi-automated loaders

  • Semi-automated services advance system (belt retraction, cables and hoses)

Figure 101 Current safety and health management technology map

Technology

Country

Safety and health management

Australia

  • Safety acts, regulations, standards and codes of practice

  • Statutory competency

  • Risk based management system

China

  • Safety acts, regulations, standards and guidelines

  • Statutory competency

USA

  • Safety acts, regulations, standards and guidelines

  • Statutory competency

India

  • Safety acts, regulations, standards and guidelines

  • Statutory competency


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