Report: APP CMHS Project 1

CSIRO advises that the information contained in this comprises general statements based on scientific research. The reader is advised and needs to be aware that such information may be incomplete or unable to be used in any specific situation. No reliance or actions must therefore be made on that information without seeking prior expert professional, scientific and technical advice. To the extent permitted by law, CSIRO (including its employees and consultants) excludes all liability to any person for any consequences, including but not limited to all losses, damages, costs, expenses and any other compensation, arising directly or indirectly from using this publication (in part or in whole) and any information or material contained in it.

3.4.4. Water Inrush Control

Inrush of water is considered to be one of the most significant hazards in the Indian mining industry. These are attributed to inrush of water from the abandoned workings, surface water bodies and intrusion of workings into ponds, rivers and lakes. Lack of maintenance of mine water management plans and illegal operations (unsurveyed, unrecorded workings) from pre-nationalisation (prior to 1975) contribute to the cause of such incidents.

Current Technologies

Statutory requirements for prevention of inrush of water are as follows:

  • mine entries are required to be constructed 1.5 m above the highest flood level

  • mine workings must not be vertically below or within 15 m of a water body

  • where there is a danger from underground inundation – mine workings are not to approach within 60 m of suspected or known flooded workings, without an inspector’s permission and drilling advance detection boreholes.

Traditional advance borehole techniques and the establishment of flood alarms on surface water bodies (rivers, ponds, etc.) are currently practiced.

Application Sites

The relevant procedures and data on mine water inrush and inundation are available at DGMS.

Technology Gaps/Needs

The adoption of existing information technology in mine surveying to help reduce the number of inundation incidents is required. The installation of audio-visual flood level alarms must be provided on all surface water sources.

Various geophysical methods for detection of underground workings, voids and water bodies should be researched and implemented, such as ground probe radar (GPR), micro-gravity, multi-electrode resistivity method, cross-hole radio wave tomography, transient electromagnetic method (TEM) and seismic tomography.

Research and development are required for provision of a watertight chamber as a last refuge underground in case of inundation.

APPgate Quick Search

APPgate Partners

APPgate is a collaborative effort of many of the coal producing nations of the Asia Pacific Region:






Republic of Korea



©2018 APPgate