Report: APP CMHS Project 1




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2.3.1. Overview

China has a resource of coal of around 5,000 Bt, and is currently ranked just behind the USA and Russia. Among the proven energy resources, coal makes up 94 % whilst petroleum and natural gas only constitute 5.4 % and 0.6 % respectively.

Over the last 50 years, coal has played an irreplaceable role in the national economic development of China and has always been a dominant energy source. Coal has made up around 70 % of all energy needs in China and this share will largely remain unchanged in the next 30 years. Table 1 shows the consumption of major energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydro) between 1978 and 2006.

Table 1 Energy consumption and type

Year

Total Energy

Makeup of Total Energy, %


1,000 t standard coal

Coal

Petroleum

Natural Gas

Hydro

1978

571,440

70.7

22.7

3.2

3.4

1980

602,750

72.2

20.7

3.1

4.0

1985

766,820

75.8

17.1

2.2

4.9

1989

969,340

76.1

17.1

2.1

4.7

1990

987,030

76.2

16.6

2.1

5.1

1991

1,037,830

76.1

17.1

2.0

4.8

1992

1,091,700

75.7

17.5

1.9

4.9

1993

1,159,930

74.7

18.2

1.9

5.2

1994

1,227,370

75.0

17.4

1.9

5.7

1995

1,311,760

74.6

17.5

1.8

6.1

1996

1,389,480

74.7

18.0

1.8

5.5

1997

1,377,980

71.7

20.4

1.7

6.2

1998

1,322,140

69.6

21.5

2.2

6.7

1999

1,338,310

69.1

22.6

2.1

6.2

2000

1,385,530

67.8

23.2

2.4

6.7

2001

1,431,990

66.7

22.9

2.6

7.9

2002

1,517,970

66.3

23.4

2.6

7.7

2003

1,749,900

68.4

22.2

2.6

6.8

2004

2,032,270

68.0

22.3

2.6

7.1

2005

2,233,190

68.9

21.0

2.9

7.2

2006

2,462,700

69.4

20.4

3.03

7.2


China is not only a leading coal consumption country but the largest coal producing country. According to 2009 BP World Energy Statistics, the global coal production in 2008 was 6.78 Bt and China alone produced 2.83 Bt, or about 42 % of the global coal. Table 2 shows the annual coal production in China between 1990 and 2008.

Table 2 Coal Production 1990-2008

Year

Coal production ,000 t

Rate of change, %

1990

1,087,250


1991

1,095,420

0.8

1992

1,123,650

2.6

1993

1,1587,90

3.1

1994

1,248,860

7.8

1995

1,369,990

9.7

1996

1,406,150

2.6

1997

1,383,430

-1.6

1998

1,259,630

-9.0

1999

1,050,920

-16.6

2000

1,004,680

-4.40

2001

1,169,420

16.4

2002

1,385,650

18.5

2003

1,674,730

20.8

2004

1,893,510

13.0

2005

2,042,590

7.8

2006

2,303,960

12.8

2007

2,468,530

7.1

2008

2,829,230

6.5



Based on the Chinese government report published in 26 October 2009, coal will continue to be a dominant energy source in China into the future.

According to the national economic development plan, the predicted coal consumption in China between 2010 and 2050 is shown in Table 3. It is predicted that Chinese coal consumption will reach 3.9 Bt in 2020 and 4.5 Bt in 2050.

Table 3 Future consumption

Year

GDP increase
%

Annual coal consumption increase
%

Coal consumption
Bt

2010

7.00

4.3

2.96

2011

6.50

4.3

3.09

2012

6.50

3.8

3.20

2013

6.50

2.9

3.30

2014

6.50

2.8

3.39

2015

5.50

2.7

3.48

2016

6.70

2.6

3.57

2017

6.70

2.5

3.66

2018

6.70

2.6

3.76

2019

6.70

2.3

3.84

2020

6.70

2.5

3.94

2021

6.50

1.9

4.01

2022

6.50

1.8

4.09

2023

6.50

1.7

4.16

2024

6.50

1.6

4.22

2025

6.50

1.5

4.29

2030

5.30

1.3

4.34

2035

5.30

1.2

4.39

2040

5.30

1.2

4.45

2045

5.30

1.3

4.50

2050

5.30

1.1

4.55



In 2008 there were over 17,000 operating coal mines in China and they produced 2.83 Bt of coal. Of the total production, about 75 % coal output was mined from medium to large coal mines.

Most of the coal production in China is from underground coal mines. In 2007, this coal production was 2.34 Bt or more than 94 % of the total coal output. The coal seams in China are often located deep underground. The average mining depth of underground coal mines is about 450 m and the depth increases by about 8 to 12 m per year. Some underground coal mines have reached a mining depth of more than 1000 m. For example, the mining depth of Changguang mine is 1,000 m, Guanshan mine of the Beipiao Group is 1,059 m, Wangyingzhi mine of the Fuxin Group is 1,100 m, Zhaogezhuang mine of the Kailuan Group is 1,159 m, Caitun mine of the Shenyang Group is 1,197 m and the mining depth of Huafeng mine of the Xinwen Group has reached 1,350 m. It is estimated that the mining depth of many coal mines in China will reach between 1,000 to 1,500 m in 20 years time.


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